Down syndrome or downward child nature is a special kind of child. The word down syndrome is derived from the name of British physician John Langdon, who identified these children in 1866. A child between every 500 and 700 children can be born with a Down Syndrome or Down Child. According to the World Health Organization report, in our country, about 5000 births per year or 15 children per day are born.
DNA inside the chromosomal inside our cell is called genealogy holder and carrier. All of our characteristics, such as conduct, behavior, intelligence, appearance, height, color are all controlled by this DNA. If there is an inconsistency in this DNA or chromosome, physical and mental defects occur. These are genetic errors. Some children have certain physical characteristics such as relaxation of the muscles, lower height, elevation of the eyes, flat nose, small ears, only one line in the palate, etc. They’re Down Syndrome.
Causes and Risks of Down Syndrome
The smallest part of the body structure is called cell or cell. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human cell, half of which comes from the mother and half from the father. One chromosome is made up of billions of DNA. Down syndrome, another chromosome 21 entered the place of chromosomes. Researchers believe 95 percent of the down syndrome is due to this. World number syndrome day is celebrated on 21/3 or 21st March, as there are three chromosomes 21. And due to this additional chromosomes, certain physical and mental flaws of the baby below are noticed.
It is not known exactly where the mother under the mother was born. Many people think that only elderly women give birth to a child with Down syndrome. This is a misconception. Anyone who can be affected by Down Syndrome, but with age, the risk continues to increase. The age of the mother increases the likelihood of a baby’s Downs syndrome.
For example, one in 1600 pregnant mothers up to 20 years of age, one in 1300 pregnant mothers of up to 25 years of age, and one in 1000 mothers of up to 30 years of age. But after the age of 35, the risks are increasing rapidly. One in 350 pregnant mothers up to 35 years of age and one in 100 mothers below 40 years of age.
Even if the possibility of having a baby under the age of most of the elderly increases, as the majority of women are young at the young age, the child below the mothers of young people is usually seen. That means that the mother of any age can be a baby down
On the other hand, if a mother has a downward child, then it increases the chances of having a baby below. It is believed that due to environmental pollution, pregnant mother’s adulterated food and cosmetics, radioactivity, etc., the baby may be born. Often, if parents are carriers of chromosomes with errors, their children may be down-to-earth. If the carrier is a father, then the risk is 3% and if the mother is growing then it will increase to 12%.
Identification of Down Syndrome in Pregnancy
In some cases, it is possible to identify whether there is a child’s Down syndrome before the birth of the baby through prenatal examination. The screening test cannot be sure of the fact that if a pregnant baby has Downs syndrome, it can give a sense of how much the percentage of the pregnant baby’s Down syndrome is. Examining chromosomes using baby blood samples is the only way to diagnose this disease.
Between 11 and 14 weeks, pregnancy mother’s blood is found in Pap, HCG, and 16 to 20 weeks, depending on the risk of chemicals in AFP, istriol, HCG, etc. Apart from ultrasonography, it is found in the mother’s stomach 11 or 14 weeks after the neck of the baby’s neck, the presence of nostrils, and the blood flow of the primary blood vessel called “Daktas Venosos.” According to the inspection report, the mothers identified as high risk are advised to check the baby below.
High risk / ‘screening yes’ indicates that your pregnant baby has this disease. If ‘screening is yes’, you must be tested for diagnosis. You will be asked to do any of the chorionic villus sampling (amniocentesis) or amniocentesis to make sure you have a down syndrome. Your doctor will help you to understand the results and help you decide whether to take any further tests.
According to the doctor’s suggestion, you may be offered amniocentesis for up to 15 weeks of pregnancy if your down syndrome screening results in high risk / ‘screening yes’. If there is any abnormality in the ultrasound scan, which has a genetic problem, and if you or your baby’s father’s family have a history of chronic or chromosomal problems like Down Syndrome, Cycle Cell Anemia or Thalassemia, then this test may be suggested.
A subtle index under the guidance of ultrasound will be inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounded by the baby inside your stomach. Children’s chromosomes and chromosomes of this fluid cell are the same. This is why a sample of this fluid is sent to the laboratory.
Usually, this fluid is tested for down syndrome and other serious diseases such as spina bifida and Cecil cell. It is also known through the test that the child is not a boy or a girl. So if you want to know your baby’s sex then your doctor can ask.
In the amniocentesis test, there is a risk of a miscarriage of 0.5-1%, that is, every 100 test results in a miscarriage. For this reason, before examining this, the risk of miscarriage should be considered well.
Coronic Villas Sampling (CVS)
Before amniocentesis, it is possible to make CVS at the 11th week of your pregnancy. It can tell you beforehand whether there is any risk of your child being succumbed to a disease (such as cystic fibrosis, Cecil cell, thalassemia, or muscular default).
In this test, a fine index under the guidance of ultrasound is transmitted to the uterus through the abdomen. Sometimes a fine tube passes through the vagina and passes through the uterus to the uterus. A very small part of the uterus (known as chronic tissue) is taken for testing.
CVS is at risk of 1-2% of miscarriage. It is riskier than amniocentesis.
How Down Syndrome Can Be Detected After Birth:
A physician may be suspicious of seeing any age-old child as a child. Because they have certain physical characteristics. When the parents see that their child’s appearance is a little different, they do not have less energy on the baby, they are not able to learn to stand or walk, to increase their physical growth, to have less intelligence, then they become the doctor. A doctor determines whether the baby is under child’s chromosomic number or karyotyping test.
The symptoms of babies who are born with Down syndrome are:
- The body muscles are not strong or muscles are not as strong as children. It is called muscular relaxation or hypotonia and such children are called floppy babies.
- Two eyes outer edge curved.
- There may be only one line across the palms of their hands (Singal Palmer Card).
- At birth, the weight and length of the child are less than the average weight and length.
Babies with Down Syndrome have some common physical characteristics, although they may not be the same for everyone. Seeing a child with Down syndrome is more like his mother, father, or other family members than the other syndrome-affected child.
There are differences in personality and ability among down syndrome sufferers. Everyone born with Down syndrome has different learning disabilities. The level of teaching disabilities is the same for each other. There may be problems in contacting the child infected with this disease and there is not much attention to any one subject.
Can not think and remember anything due to intellectual problems. Children are never imagined and cannot play alone. There are problems with giving or receiving a child.
Many children with Down syndrome have a health problem. The possible complications include:
- Heart disease.
- Intestinal abnormality.
- Digestion Problems.
- Hearing and sight impairment.
- Thyroid defective action.
- Problems with Cervical Spine.
- Blood Disease.
The intensity of these problems varies from person to person. Some children do not have any of these, and some have to enjoy some of it. Your child may be tested by the pediatrician more frequently than any other child so that the new problems can be quickly identified.
Child Care of Down Syndrome
It is difficult for almost all households to accept the diagnosis of an undernourished child. It is not unusual to have negative thoughts in these situations.
After the birth of the child, the more the children respond to the parents, the more new activities they develop, the more the parents’ love for the child develops. Children with Down syndrome have thus failed to attract the attention of their parents.
However, it is important to remember that children with Down syndrome, like other children, have similar needs. Getting support from family, relatives, and neighbors is very important in this case.
Although Down Syndrome is not a cure, there are many ways to support such children so that they can grow and become self-sufficient as a healthy and fulfilling person. These include:
- Specialized enhanced healthcare.
- Special services for providing necessary support to children and their parents.
- Training to increase child-rearing skills.
- Education and support groups to provide information and support to parents, friends, and family of affected children.
Advanced education and support bring more opportunities to people with Down syndrome. Experts say that physical care can be brought under various services. Down syndrome can be self-reliant by teaching children like other normal babies if proper care, nutritional food, speech and language therapy and physical therapy are given.
Special education programs (IEPs) are available for these children at Cardiff International School. The army-run ‘Prayas’ school also offers special education for children with autism as well as children with Down syndrome and other disabilities.
Because the child with Down syndrome has more physical problems than normal, it may be examined by the child specialist often than the other children so that the newborn problems are quickly identified. The eyes and ears should be regularly checked for children with Down syndrome.
Because in most cases, they suffer from the problems associated with these two organs. Besides, if there are other physical problems including birth defective heart disease, then he is also available in our country. Early intervention programmatic procedures include the treatment of multiple problems, such as improving eyesight or increasing motor skills.
There is no way to prevent down syndrome. As the mother increases the risk of having a baby with age, it is discouraged by the age of medical science, especially at the age of thirty-five. If the mother’s previous child is suffering from Down syndrome, then the doctor should be consulted for taking the baby later on.